New Perspectives on the Great Pyramid by Bernard I. Pietsch

There are no scholarly footnotes to the following exposition on the message of the Great Pyramid. There is no appeal to historical analysis, archaeological tradition, nor extra terrestrial intervention. The only documentation offered is the stones of the Pyramid themselves; their placement, dimensions and geometry are the sole demonstration. Our objective will be to liberate the meaning from the stones and pursue the course of reasoning revealed.

Superscript roman numerals in the text below are links to notes in the appendix; please use your browser's Back button to return after viewing a note.

The end result of this application, is the proposition that the designers of the Great Pyramid had access to a supremely successful paradigm subsequently lost to later generations. The Pyramid is the database of that lost paradigm. As a library in stone, it is designed as a model of the galaxy,i  the solar system,ii  the earth and ultimately the human being. It is a working metaphor of astronomy, physics, biology, and earth science. The Pyramid is the consummate demonstration of "as above, so below."

The best representation of the mind that informed the Pyramid resides in the Pyramid itself. The Pyramid is the message; it is the model.It is the demonstration of the architect’s ability to meld science, art and geometry into a meaningful form. As a wonder of conceptual art, the Great Pyramid organizes grand themes and tremendous ideas. It is the solution to a problem. We must ask: How do we read it? What answers does it hold? What problem does it solve?

In the service of sacred art, the architect's communication functions both as statement and as dialogue. As statement, the Pyramid articulates through line and measure. But the discovery of its meaning requires the interaction of the observer with the form. It is the participation with the form that elevates the investigator to the level of understanding.

The meaning of the Pyramid has always been apparent, but we have not been able to translate the language of the medium. The language required to decipher it will not be found in any book or dictionary in a library. But, with due diligence and using tools similar to ours, anyone could recover the same information we have found. The following pages introduce some of the idiom necessary for conversing with the Pyramid’s architectural ideas.

Remarkably, once deciphered, the stones of the Pyramid will no longer be necessary. The stones chronicle information commensurate with the nearest pinecone or a blade of grass. Ultimately, this information is available to everyone, everywhere, here and now. But before the fact, the Pyramid will be both primer and directory. Read correctly, it will return us to the path we left eons ago. Ironically, the reading of this ancient model and the rediscovery of its attendant paradigm hold the key to the solution of many modern enigmas.

How Do You Read?
The simplest reading of the Pyramid requires cataloging the stones in terms of number and measure. Once the stony card catalog of the Pyramid is assembled, the dimensions of height, width and depth of each stone can be converted or translated into the metrology (measuring system) to which it relates. Through the filter of measure, meaning becomes apparent.

The measuring system that evolves through this process we have referred to elsewhere as the Essential Canon of Measure. The Canon is significant in that it correlates universal cycles of many kinds: planetary periods, tidal cycles, field precession, earth magnetism, plant growth patterns, human physiological cycles. Knowledge of these very long periodicities requires many, many generations of observation to formulate. But once recorded, any generation in any age can access the database and recognize the long term patterns. (For more information about how a metrology emerges out of the patterns of natural events, refer to our page entry on The Essential Canon of Measure.)

What Do You Read?
After measuring the individual stones, and cataloging the features of the whole Pyramid itself, we will ask: "What observations, events or phenomena do the stones represent? To what questions is the Pyramid the answer?"

Nothing Is Hidden
Contrary to the many commentaries on the Great Pyramid which speculate about secrecy, mystery and magic, we will affirm that nothing in the Pyramid is concealed, hidden or secret. The enigma of the Pyramid in fact, resides more on the part of the observer than in the intention of the architect. The language of the Pyramid is at once precise and lyric. To penetrate its intended meaning one must perceive both science and art simultaneously.

In the language of the Pyramid, the integration of number, geometry and metrology is so interrelated as to be holographic. To see one part clearly, the whole must be surveyed, but before reaching that perspective, many details must come into focus. As a result, our exposition may appear round about and indirect, but as we progress the pieces of the puzzle and the logic of the Pyramid will become clearer and the message will unfold as self-evident.

The builders were aware that every aspect of the world and the self ought to harmonize with the universal order and that by truly understanding one thing it is possible to understand all.

The finest instrument ever constructed by mankind reveals what he has in him. In the largest sense, everything recorded in the Pyramid is recorded within the human organism. We are the one thing. Through this paradox, the realization occurs: the solution to the Great Pyramid is not only in the stones, but also in ourselves.

Why the Pyramid Was Built from the Top Down
Our expedition begins with a remark from Herodotus, 4th Century, BCE Greek historian. Herodotus was one of the earliest Western sources to report on the pyramids and culture of Egypt. (Among some, Herodotus’ accounts earned him the title, "Father of History," among others the title "Father of Liars," as he made many curious and whimsical statements.) He reports that Egyptian temple priests told him that the top portion of the Pyramid was built first, then the middle and lastly the part closest to the ground. Since such a building could not be constructed top to bottom, what is the inference?

Herodotus’ account is not about principles of engineering and construction. It is a veiled referent to the concept which drives the form of the Pyramid. "From the top-down" refers to the metaphysical notion of wholeness derived from the Pyramid’s form. The Pyramid is more than the sum of its parts. The "top" to which Herodotus’ refers is a perfect, ideal and nonexistential realm—a sacred space that can only be indicated. The fact is that the Great Pyramid has no physical pyramidian, apex or top. The dimensions of the Pyramid do not geometrically support the extension and closure of an apex point.iii  The physical structure itself was designed to be truncated at the 206th course or level. Since the angles of the Pyramid are actually slightly skewed,iv  a pyramidal top is not an extension of the geometry of the actual physical pyramid. It is an abstraction rendered from an idealized geometry. It can only be conceptualized.

The purity of the indicated space above the physical top of the Pyramid is not of this world. Each individual must recreate its existence. It is truly a sacred space—eternal, incorruptible, and timeless. But its latent potential must be supported in the world in order to be realized. The top is supported by the base; but the base is subservient to the top. In order to extrapolate the meaning of the non-existential top of the Pyramid, one must first understand the "bottom" or physical aspect of the structure. We look now for the function and meaning of the base of the Pyramid and its 206 stony courses, before returning to the initiating geometry of its top.

How the Pyramid Got Its Courses
The physical layers of limestone blocks are called "courses." Now visible as the exterior, the 206 courses represent singly and in order, the record of time of a specific 206-year period of history.

Observe the various heights of the Pyramid’s courses—some courses are measurably higher than others are. These variations are not unlike the thick and thin patterns of tree rings.

Tree RingsOn a day to day basis a tree biologically responds to its environment—every woody cell as it grows lays down in form its response to temperature, moisture, and dynamic changes. The tree is the living record of environmental changes. Each ring is the residual representation of a tree’s annual history. So sensitive is a tree to ambient environmental changes that a dendrochronologist can actually detect the tree’s registration of the sunspot cycle from the pattern of their successive rings.

So too, a simple crystal. The crystal is an accretion of molecules in time.

Each molecule of the crystal registers all the complex phenomena acting upon it in the moment of its formation. The accumulation of calcium in a coral reef has structure as do the hair, nails and skin of our own bodies. Each is a living registry of cosmic history—Time in structure.

So too the courses of the Great Pyramid. Though artificially constructed, the courses represent the record of the experience of the earth in its solar, lunar and planetary environment. The influences and fluctuations experienced during the particular 206-year period the Pyramid represents are minutely detailed by the stone placements and measures. The height of each stone and in turn each courses chronicles the successive events in a year of earth’s history. Like the tree’s ring, the individual courses of the Pyramid are a year’s record in structure—a static form representing the passage of time.

The priests of Egypt told Herodotus that there was a well "inside" the Pyramid. We understand the veiled language to mean not that the well was located within the Pyramid, but that the record of the variable depth of the well was "in" the Pyramid—recorded in the various heights of the stones of the 206 courses. Much like a tidal graph, each course, one course per year represents one year of records of the tidal fluctuation of the water taken from nearby Kephren’s Well behind the Sphinx.

Water: Universal Solution
Why would the measure of water be so important? Water is sensitive to motion. It changes in response to motion. Water registers the cumulative changes in a dynamic environment. As the tide in the sea, it responds to the total contribution of the moon, the Sun and planets, and also to the subtle but discernible contribution of the earth’s motion in space, its cosmodesic.v 

Kephren’s Well, located to the West of the Sphinx, is fed by Nile waters seeping through the semi-permeable limestone strata of the Giza Plateau. As the Nile ebbs and flows, so too the depth of water in Kephren’s Well. (That tidal effects are detectable in wells has been documented.) Variations in the level of the water can be correlated with adjustments in the earth’s motion due to the shifting positions of adjacent masses. As the moon and planets parade in the space surrounding the earth and as the earth turns on its axis, the levels of the well are the response in time to those changes.

Beginning on a precise date, the depth of the water in Kephren’s Well was meticulously measured and recorded daily. A stone would later be formed to represent the record of the water-derived formula. Beginning on the northeast corner the stones cycle in sequence northwest, southwest, southeast and back to northeast, around the perimeter of the Pyramid. Each course represents one full year of tidal readings. Observe that the stones of the first course are not uniform nor are they equal in height or length. They gradually rise and decline in height by a very small but significant measure. (Surveys show that in the first course on the north side, approximately 760 feet, a variance of approximately 2-cm was determined. This would correlate with the time period January, February and March of 2900 BCE.) From this pattern we can determine something about the overall harmonics and lunar components of the planetary family. The irregular height of the stone courses should correlate with other natural records formed during the 206-year period which the Pyramid represents. Growth patterns in coral reefs, core samples of glacial deposits, tree rings etc. formed or accumulated during this period will also have registered subtle variations of the celestial drama in their individual accretion. The elements of these various patterns we will recognize in a comprehensive harmonic analysis beginning with the date January 2nd, 2900 BCE.

January 2ND 2900 BC
Although the Great Pyramid may have been built at a later date, it was designed to commemorate one particular moment in history. It is in fact a huge benchmark on the earth and in time.

In surveyor’s language, a benchmark is a symbol placed on a permanent landmark that has a known coordinate position. A benchmark is used as a stationary reference point for determining the coordinates of other locations. The Great Pyramid functions in much the same way. But unlike the static benchmark of the surveyor, the Pyramid also functions as a working memorial to an important instant in time. Its shape, dimensions, and internal design communicate very specific information about where it is located on the earth and in the cosmos as well in one single moment. That moment, we hold was January 2nd, 2900 BCE, the beginning of the Great Pyramid’s story.

Had we been there on the morning of that day, we would have observed a spectacular display of bright objects in the eastern sky: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn visibly aligned within a few degrees of one another. In the Bible this event is alluded to in the Book of Job. In Chapter 38 God asks, "Where wast thou… when the morning stars sang together and the sons of God shouted for joy?" On that day in 2900 BCE the major planets appeared as morning "stars." This was a major astronomical event; an extraordinary celestial co-incidence which would occur only once in eons of time—an inspirational event. This was also the perfect opportunity to begin the task of recording for posterity, the planetary choreography of the next 206 years. 206 years would include seven full cycles of the planet Saturn, a major player in the cosmology of the builders.

The builders knew that all biological and physical cycles, e.g., tides, weather patterns, etc., are influenced by the earth’s proximity to other bodies in the solar system. Knowledge of the movements of the planets through the heavens was a key to understanding the cycles of the earth. Because the outer planets move only a few degrees of arc per year, planetary alignments occur over a long period of time. As the planets begin to converge in one area of the heavens the earth begins to experience the increasing dynamic effect of the alignment. With the planets approximately on the same line in 2900 BCE, it could be determined years later, just how far each had moved from this position during its cyclic path around the Sun. The changes in the positions of those planets would be recorded in the dimensions of the stone courses of the Pyramid. The varying heights of the stones of the courses as was said, were derived from and correlated to the daily measurements of the water level of Kephren’s Well. The heights of the courses correspond, one course per year, with the varying orbital and dynamic influences of the moon and planets upon our earth.

We can observe the major effects of this powerful alignment of 2900 BCE in the first course of stones. When we examine the heights of the courses we can see that on the northeast corner, the first course has the greatest height, indicating that the planets had their greatest affect on earth during the beginning of the year 2900 BCE. Thereafter, as the planets dispersed from their aligned positions, the earth experienced a declining impress. The courses are like a huge card catalog in stone. We can go to any stone on any course, and identify the day, month and year between 2900 and 2694 BCE, which the stone represents. By invoking a simple formula, we can extrapolate information about the position of the earth in orbit, about the position of the moon, about the mean water level under the Pyramid at that time, and more. This is what the courses are about.

For example, the height of the first course indicates that the level of the Nile in 2900 BCE was about two and a half feet above mean water table level. This represents a tremendous increase in the average level of water especially considering it was spread out over the entire area of the Nile River Valley. Quite plainly, that planetary alignment made a significant contribution to the earth—but we may be sure that just as the stone courses in the Pyramid decline in height, the effects of this alignment likewise came about gradually and declined.

The Pyramid Base
The first course of stones is laid upon the limestone matrix of the Giza plateau. Originally, four cornerstones were fitted into four rectangular "sockets" (cavities), carved out of the native rock. Architecturally and symbolically the Pyramid was locked to the earth by these four corner sockets which extend out of its foundation and link the Pyramid to the earth. Each socket extends downward through the pavement, each to a different depth below the Pyramid’s base. The cornerstones fit into the sockets and the Pyramid conceptually "rests" upon them.

Since the cornerstones were plundered long ago, only empty sockets remain. But no information is missing—empty spaces cannot be stolen! It is the floor of the sockets, which contain the important information. From the dimensions of the four corner sockets and particularly the depths of the sockets, a universal cyclic pattern emerges. We recognize this pattern in all of nature: it corresponds to the average cycle,vi  to the various energy states of the electron, even to the pattern of the normal heartbeat recorded by the electrocardiograph. When translated into days, the measure of the depths of the four corner sockets closely resemble the various periods of time ascribed to human biological rhythms.vii  Cheops is grounded in the most fundamental aspects of Nature, just as we humans are rooted to the earth by our biological cycles and rhythms. This is the first indication that the Great Pyramid is indeed a model of man. The message is: Man is "locked" to the earth through his biology and that biology is cosmically correlated with his planetary evolution. This is the primary understanding.

Where in the Universe are We?
The Pyramid courses detail the record of earth’s local response to astronomical influences over a 206-year period. Generations of observers would have been necessary to amass the extraordinary base of astronomical information indicated by the various features of the stones. Generations of observers were also needed to compile the record of water levels, which became the database for the course heights.

Constructed as a cosmic marker for future generations, the Pyramid had to incorporate a reference to the largest framework possible. To be sure, the alignment of the major planets in 2900 was a major astronomical event but there were deeper celestial co-incidents, which made that year even more memorable. To appreciate the precision with which the Pyramid is aligned with those events, a bit of celestial orientation is required.

To the medieval world, long after the age of the pyramids, earth was pictured as the center of the universe. All else revolved around us. In time, as the stars failed to perform as predicted by calculation, one picture concept replaced another. Humankind’s viewpoint expanded and an earth-centered framework gave way to a sun-centered system. Today (even though there are unreconciled difficulties in our modern cosmology) the sphere or vault of the heavens is conventionally viewed from any of the three following perspectives, each successively larger than the last.

The first framework is oriented in relation to the earth’s rotation every 24 hours on its axis, the imaginary line or pole pointing in the direction of the then north polar referent position. (Modernly that position is near Polaris, which we call the North Star.) If this framework were part of our address in the universe, it would be used to give us our position here on earth.

The second framework or picture concept has the earth and planets revolving around the Sun along a great nearly flat plane called the ecliptic. It takes earth one year to circuit the path of the ecliptic. If this framework were used as part of our address in the cosmos, it would be used to designate what season or part of the orbit around the Sun, earth was in at any particular time.

The third and largest part of our address has to do with the position of the whole solar system in the galaxy—the Milky Way—a vast spiraling mass of stars and systems rotating on its axis once every 226 million calendar years.

We contend that it was known to the builder almost 5,000 years ago, where on the earth the Pyramid was located, where in the solar system AND where in the galaxy. The design and position of the Great Pyramid indicate that the architect of Cheops utilized all three of the above frameworks and one other. This fourth framework is a living, moving, changing framework. It is simultaneously the largest framework we can conceive and the most immediate. It is magnetic.viii 

Our thesis presumes that the missing link between the science of today and that of the Pyramid builders (and other ancient architects) is the knowledge and use of a magnetic framework. The implications create as radical a shift in outlook as was Copernicus’ to Ptolemy’s.

The magnetic value of a location is integral to the selection of sites chosen as "sacred" in earliest times. Monuments were linked with the heavens by astronomical alignments, and to the earth by identification with their magnetic orientation. Modernly this orientation is defined as the magnetic dip and declination of the earth’s magnetic field. The dip and declination values of any location are constantly progressing westward, so that marking a location at a specific time would have been an important feature of the monument as marker. Although conventionally little is really understood about the earth’s magnetism (or about magnetism in general) we are confident that what is about to be suggested will prove out empirically and be seen to be at the core of the science which produced the Great Pyramid.

Without going into great detail here, we can begin to observe some very interesting things about the earth’s magnetic field by looking at a magnetic grid of the earth as identified on a modern magnetic Dip and Declination map. If you had one before you, you would notice that unlike the even, geometrical lines of geographic latitude and longitude, magnetic dip lines are curved and wiggley.

These lines represent the angle at which a magnetized, balanced needle hangs with respect to the vertical at any location. From our position here in Santa Rosa, California, the angle of "dip" is presently about 62°.

Santa Rosa shares the same dip latitude as Cape Kennedy, Florida, even though our geographic latitudes are quite different. Likewise, Seattle, Washington shares the same dip latitude as Washington, DC and Edinburgh, Scotland. Each has quite a different geographic latitude.

Notice that geographic coordinates are for the most part an imaginary construct—they don’t exist. But natural phenomena like the movement of the jet stream, migration paths of birds, animals and insects seem to occur along magnetic latitudes. The dip needle responds according to its magnetic latitude. Things "happen" in magnetic coordinates. This observation leads us to believe that all living organisms are basically magnetic beings. Birds, worms, fishes and people are sensitive to subtle changes in magnetic orientation. This has been proved. Beyond being merely sensitive to magnetics, we hope to demonstrate scientifically that Nature, on a grand scale, is organized magnetically. We are magnetic beings living on a magnetically oriented planet in a magnetically interacting universe. The ancients were attuned to this and included the knowledge of their magnetic bearings in their architecture.

The rate of the astronomical precession of the equinoxes is about 71.7 years per degree. We hold that this value can also be associated with the progression of the earth’s magnetic readings. By rotating the earth’s magnetic field back at the rate of 71.7 years per degree to account for precession, we would find that 4,881 years ago the magnetic dip value on the Giza Plateau in Egypt would have 51° 51’ 14".

Diagrams 7 and 8

51° 51’14" is a magical angle. It a nexus of pure math and geometry, a point where magnetics and geographics synchronistically coincide. For example: Treating Cheops as a geometrically perfect pyramid (which for important reasons it is not) and slicing it from the top so as to intersect the middle of two opposite sides, we can extract a plane triangle with two angles of 51° 51’ 14" at its base. The third angle is 76° 17’ 32" at the apex.

This angle, or the "top" of the Pyramid, read as a geographic latitude, coincides with the latitude of the earth’s magnetic pole. The designer of the Pyramid, in making Cheops a model of the earth, utilized both geographic and magnetic systems and must have had precise knowledge of where both the geographic and magnetic poles were located.

By not finishing the Pyramid to a point at the top, the architect provided the observer with an opportunity to participate in his Art—to participate in the discovery of the unseen, and to participate in completing the Pyramid. Just as a good teacher will provide a context to lead the student to discover his own answers, the architect left all the indications necessary for the observer/participant to carry his experience of the Pyramid one step further. By not forcing a closure at the top of Cheops, the architect gave us a truly sacred space from which to learn that the perfect cannot be consigned to the realm of the tangible world, but it can be implied conceptually.

To complete the Pyramid we must first square off the base and extend the slope angle of 51° 51’ 14" to its geometric apex. By doing so, the missing top is created. We can fulfil that which is not, by projecting that which is indicated by pattern.

Another meaningful coincidence occurs when one face (side) of the Pyramid is taken as a plane triangle. The two base angles are 58° 17'. 5817 is also the number of inchesix  from the base to the apex—484 feet to the theoretical "top" of the Pyramid (which exists only in perfect geometry).

A second synchronicity is exposed when it is noticed that the height of the Pyramid reduced to .00000484 is the mathematical representation for the tangent of one second of arc, the smallest unit of angular measure. Cheops, the largest structure in the world simultaneously incorporates in its height, the smallest unit of earth measure. The juxtaposition of the macro with the micro, the eternal with the instantaneous is a signature characteristic of the Pyramid builder.

The Pyramid juxtaposes the physical with the metaphysical, the existential with the essential. The physical Pyramid with its 206 courses is not symmetrical for a very important reason. Because it is a representation of the physical world and 206 years of real earth history and the physical world is not symmetrical. It is mutable, variable and subject to the vagaries of time. Nature wiggles and dances and is in a state of constant process and change. The Pyramid, to be an accurate model of man and earth, had to have a provision for that which is beyond itself and in the process of becoming. The stone courses of Cheops are about its history, but the "top" of the Pyramid represents the potentiality of the entire structure.

The Casing Stone Mantle
The architect provided for the indelibility of the Pyramid in several ways. First by having the face of every casing stone, over 22 acres of them, inscribed with the angle of the Pyramid: 51° 51’14". Secondly by setting the corner stones of the base in sockets (cavities) which were carved out of the bedrock upon which the Pyramid rests. If the corner stones were removed (and they were) the sockets would remain. Empty space cannot be stolen. The remnants indicate what was intended. Had every stone of every course of Cheops been removed and nothing remained, with just one single casing stone and the knowledge of the four corner positions, we could reconstruct the outer geometry of the entire Pyramid.

By creating a model which extends beyond the corporeal world and placing the information in a form that could not be destroyed, the architect succeeded in designing an enduring statement. Did he anticipate the decay of civilization that would eventually permit the plundering of the greatest structure ever built? Might he have foreseen that the once perfect outer casing stones enclosing the exterior of the Pyramid would be quarried centuries later to build the palaces and shrines of Cairo?

We propose that the architect elected not to make the casing stones inter-locking, that he anticipated the inevitable decline of civilization, and that he foresaw a time when the polished casing stones would attract the predatory nature of a less reverent society.

The architect also provided the solution for those in the future who would lose the continuity of knowledge with the past. Once the smooth outer surface of the Great Pyramid was pillaged, the raw data for a science, was uncovered. The limestone courses, the 206 years of records beneath the casing contain the information that could lead humanity back to an attitude of harmony and integration with the planet.

Ironically, on one level the despoiling of the casing was a raping of the Pyramid. On another, it was a fertilization. The act of defiling Cheops by penetration of its mantle, actually exposed the dormant knowledge available in its courses. By stripping the casing, another aspect of the Pyramid was revealed—the Pyramid would take on new life, new meaning and new purpose. Removing the mantle was like opening the doors to a sealed library. The contents therein could potentially spark the generation of a new civilization. Learning to read from that library is our task.

"The upper portion of the Pyramid was finished first, then the middle, and finally the part which was lowest and nearest the ground." —Herodotus

As discussed previously, the "upper portion" of the Pyramid, its non-existent pyramidian, informs the "lower" Pyramid. It is the container of the metaphysical levels, the perfected information and the potential of the physical Pyramid. The middle portion, the courses of stone and the inner chambers catalog the realm of the celestial world—the cycles, rhythms and harmonics of the various members of the solar family.

The lowest portion, nearest the ground—the corner sockets and chambers carved out of bedrock infer the most elemental patterns of the earth’s body itself. Characterized by an idealized wave motif, we recognize the profile of the socket depths as the patterns of the human heartbeat, the ebb and flow of the tides and the four levels of the electron in relation to its primary, etc. Again Herodotus’ statement does not address principles of engineering, but the theoretical perspective necessary to animate the design of the building before it was built.

The initiation of the stone Pyramid begins with understanding the space that would be occupied beyond the 206th course—the space of the metaphysical pyramidian. In order to place the smallest details of the Pyramid in proper order, the largest view is necessary. To reiterate, the sacred can only be indicated. The sacred must be beyond corruption and the limitations of the corporeal. But the virtue of the space above the Pyramid is intimately connected to the nature of the physical Pyramid, its body of stone.

Without the integrity of the base, the purity of the top would not be available to us. In order to be directed by one’s potential, or by an organizing power beyond the physical, one must be both grounded in the physical (understanding) and open to his or her "higher" levels (intuition).

While standing on the top of the Pyramid, supported by the 206 courses below, we may entertain the realm of the impossible, unlimited and perfect domain above. The geometry of the top demonstrates the virtuosity of the ideological.

When contemplating the whole Pyramid, there are at least three categories of information to consider. The first reading uses the measures taken literally and precisely. Numerous engineers, astronomers and scholarsx  have devoted lifetimes to measuring and documenting the various and complex features of the Pyramid. This literal level informs us most about the 206-year period, which the Pyramid reports. The individual measures of the stones relate to specific periods of time. For example, the actual dimensions of the sides of the base are not equal nor are they square. However, the side lengths taken literally, as they are actually measured, do have meaning. If the perimeter of the base intends the year, then one side represents one quarter of the year. We noticed that the four sides of the Pyramid are not exactly the same. But neither are the quadrants of the solar orbit. Each is proportionately different. The four side lengths of the base represent the four quadrants of the year—winter, spring, summer, fall. The builders were not in error, they were precise.

Because the irregular sides of the base do not in fact permit the closure to a perfect pyramidian at the apex of the Pyramid, another fascinating detail emerges out of the precision of its design. For example:

Viewing the Pyramid from the top course down, as from an aerial photograph, superimpose the square of the top course (imagining it to be the original 206th ) over the larger square of the base. A tiny incongruity of alignment can be detected. The corners of the two bases are slightly skewed. Looking down from the top, a small but perceptible spiraling of the corners can be reckoned—about 2° 51’ 39". What is the inference? In 206 courses, the builder accounted for the amount of precession of the equinoxes which would occur in the 206 years of time the courses represent. At a rate of approximately one degree of precession per 72 years, in 206 years we would expect a divergence of 2.86111° or 2° 51’ 39"—the amount the top platform is rotated from the base. The rigor is in the details. (See diagram in appendix entry iv.)

The second category of reading the Pyramid utilizes intuited or perfect measures and angles indicated by the physical. The character of the information is mathematical and geometric; it represents the eternal, mechanical and unchanging relationships of pi and phi, circle to square, etc. (The interpretations of historical pyramidologistsxi  are numerous and interesting. We will not reiterate their findings here, as there are ample publications elsewhere. What we intend to introduce is other than those standard models and geometries.)

From our own observations, a simple illustration: In a perfect case, the height of the pyramidian would be 27.7777 feet. The reciprocal of this number (1 divided by 27.7777) times 10,000 is 360, meaning: the part indicates the whole. The rarefied empty space of the theoretical top, is a realm wherein numbers only indicate.xii  One number may point to many possibilities, but none exactly.

A third category, which we will explore, integrates the conceptual with the dynamics of the physical world. From this approach we collect the knowledge gained intuitively from the sacred space and reintroduce it back into the dynamic world. This approach uses the data of the moment in its formulation. It utilizes both the detail of the actual and the extrapolation of the indicated.

Here the inquirer must actively engage with the measures. The measures suggest means, but it is up to the observer to extrapolate the implication of the mean to present time. Knowledge of the instant is what we are seeking. What is happening right now? What influences are acting upon us? In what direction are we headed?

The simplest, most responsive instrument to the vagaries of the moment is the pendulum. The pendulum is the most direct expression of this moment. It is the applied key. The one-second pendulum drives the Pyramid’s geometry and is the source of the Pyramid’s metrology.

Historically, conventional metrology has correlated length relative to its utility in forming space and distance, i.e. volume and linear measure. Entering into new territory, we propose that the original Pyramid metrology also invoked the dimension of Time. That metrology emerged from the correlation of units of length with the time of swing of the length as a pendulum. By using a functioning pendulum, a unit of length could be exercised to indicate a unit of time. The use of this simple device confirms that other dimensions of information were encoded in the architectural dimensions of the Pyramid. Any length may simultaneously represent a distance and a period of time. This single factor is the most significant achievement of the ancient builder, and the most overlooked criterion of modern archaeology. In every metrological observation the question ought to be asked’ "What is the Time of this measure?"

"Man fears Time, but Time fears the Pyramid."xiii
By using time as the fundamental dynamic of metrology, a proper unit of measure becomes oracular. It is no coincidence that the number of inches in the base perimeter of the Great Pyramid divided by 100 represents the number of days in the year.xiv  Nor that the height in feet to the theoretical top of the Pyramid is the same number divided by 10 million, as the number of the tangent of one second of arc. xv  The Pyramid simultaneously symbolizes one year, one second of arc,xvi  one rotation of the galaxy,xvii  and one second of time.xviii 

The introduction of the one-second pendulum, gives new meaning to the definition of the inch. When time is inserted into the equation, controversies surrounding lengths and measures, become less tenable. Regarding sacred measure, units of length are no longer arbitrary nor historically derived. They are time dependent. Time becomes the initiating factor, not culture. All dimensions appeal to time.

The inch of the Pyramid is not exactly the conventional inch used today—but very close. Close enough for conversation. The quality of the inch used in the Pyramid however is vastly distinct. When knowledgeable critics exclaim "But, the Egyptians didn’t have the inch!" They are both correct and incorrect. Actually it is we who do not possess the inch nor the knowledge of Time, not with the magnitude possessed by the pyramid builders.

We cannot say where the inch came from, as the historical origins of metrology were lost ages ago. What comes down to us modernly is a variety of units from many cultures with multiple applications loosely or obscurely related. We are proposing that the metrology of the Great Pyramid originated from a single genus and that all the measures derived from a single harmonious system. In this system all units inter-relate cohesively—not randomly, not arbitrarily. Each is abstracted from phenomena observed in the Natural order as process.

In "heaven", where metrology is the pure instrument of the "gods", each unit of measure refers to an event in the universe. In this heavenly or metaphysical realm, any single unit is a portal to any other unit because all units access the one thing. In a perfect metrology the one and the all are simultaneous. The smallest is synchronous with the largest.

But in an imperfect world, perfection is but closely approximated. The universe of being is always subject to change and deformation. The application of the perfect to the sensible world is used only as a measure of departure from the pure. Hence we arrive at terms like the Mean Solar Day or the Mean Sidereal Day. There is no such day in actuality—all the days are slightly different—but we can gage by the standard figure of the mean, how any single day varies. 1440 minutes of the mean solar day is a perfect metrological/astronomical application. The day of today, is something else, maybe more minutes, maybe less. Nonetheless, we recognize in number form, the indicator of the Mean Solar Day.

Because we are not inventing but re-covering this metrology, it is complex to expose the linear derivation of a single unit. The measures seem incestuous in their inter-relatedness, but by circumnavigating we can suggest the direction from which they seem to derive.

A Second from the Heart
Our premise is that all units of measurement are derived from human physiology. The rhythms and cycles of the body are an expression of cosmic process. (See previous discourse on Sources of Measure. Necessary to this discussion is the presupposition that the builders utilized the 360-degree circle and its attendant hours, minutes and seconds of sexigesimal notation.)

Metaphorically speaking, the balanced or authentic "heart" of an evolved individual, beats 60 cycles per minute. The "true heart" presumes the second of time. During one second of time, the rotation of the earth will have progressed through 1500 Canon feetxix  of arc on the equator. (Notice how we jumped from a small unit, one second, to a large unit, the earth’s equator, and from time to linear measure.) When the heart beats 3.4418888 times the earth will have rotated through 5,162.8333 feet on the equator. This distance and time relate to the duration of one completed breath. (5,162.83333 feet is also 50.900 seconds of arc on the equator. Celestially 50.90 represents the number of seconds of arc the equinoxes precess in one year.) In one day of the sacred year of 360 days, there would be 25,461.6 breaths. Astronomically this is the same as the number of sacred years in the precessional cycle of the equinoxes: 25,461.6 sacred years. (By the calendar this translates to 25,825.8+ earth/solar years.) One can only marvel at the congruence of such a system and at the length of time which would be required to accumulate or calculate such observations.

Following the line of synchronicity:

The Great Book of Earth Measures
The equator can be likened to a Great Book, as the largest earthbound figures reside in its circumference. The following Canon designations will manifest in several forms throughout our discourse, sometimes removed by decimal places, sometimes veiled by the filter of other units of measure.

The physical base of the Pyramid, 36,515 inches, is a magical number. Divided by 100 and taken sexigesimally it would be 365.15 or 365¼ representing 365 and ¼ days of the calendar year. The figure of 365.15 will be used as the Pyramid ¼ for the calendar year from here on. The base, representing the year, can be divided by many numbers reflecting meaningful values:

For example:

Using Canon measures, the earth’s circumference would have at the equator:

Before proceeding to the King’s Chamber we direct our attention once again to the reports of our friend Herodotus. In Book II Euterpe, Herodotus tells of the wondrous complex of pyramids and temples he saw in Egypt. He tells us that details of the Egyptian mysteries "shall not pass his lips" and that he will divulge only as much as can be done "without impiety " and "only when compelled to do so by the course of the narrative." Having promised the temple priests not to reveal all that he had been told his whole account is rich in metaphor, allusion and veiled references.

In Section 148, he describes how the pyramids "surpass description and are equal to a number of the greatest works of the Greeks, but the Labyrinth surpasses the pyramids." This Labyrinth has "12 roofed courts with gates exactly opposite one another, six looking north and six to the south." He goes on to say that a single wall surrounds the entire building and that there are two different sorts of chambers throughout—"half underground, and half above ground, the later built upon the former; the whole number of these chambers is 3000 in all." Herodotus himself saw the "upper" chambers and "found them to excel all other human productions." He continues, "The passages through the houses, and varied windings of the paths across the courts excited me in infinite admiration as I passed from the courts into chambers, and from the chambers into colonnades, and from colonnades into fresh houses, and again from these into courts unseen before. The roof was throughout of stone, like the walls; and the walls were carved all over with figures; every court was surrounded with a colonnade which was built of white stones exquisitely fitted together. At the corner of the Labyrinth stands a pyramid, forty fathoms high, with large figures engraved on it, which is entered by a subterranean passage." Of the "lower" chambers he could only speak from report, since the "keepers could not be got to show them since (as he was told) they "contained the sepulchres of the kings who built the Labyrinth."

The Labyrinth is also a representation of the heavens, the 12 houses of the zodiac, and the division of the sphere into degrees, minutes and seconds. Of the two different sorts of chambers, half above ground (night sky) and half below ground (day) Herodotus could only observe those above ground. The single wall "surrounding" the entire building we take as the equator. The "Pyramid on the corner 40 fathoms high" is entered by a "subterranean" passage. What is this Pyramid? What does it represent? We know it has "large figures engraved on it", so the number will be a large one. Since the Pyramid is at the "corner" of the labyrinth and its height is given in fathoms, let us take one-fourth of the earth’s circumference, a large figure, in fathoms:

21909000 fathoms in equator = 5477250.

We now recognize this number: 5477250 ¸ 1000= 5477.250 as inches to the 206th course of Cheops Pyramid.

For the "subterranean passage" we divide 5477.25 by 10,000, take the reciprocal and multiply by two:

      1      =  1.825733717 x 2 = 3.651467 x 10,000 = 36514.67 inches,

closely approximating the number representing the base of Cheops and the number of the solar year. The Pyramid is "entered" at its perimeter.

The "wall which surrounds the entire building" may also be seen as the seconds of arc in the circle: 1,296,000. Herodotus says the Labyrinth is divided into 3,000 chambers, thus:

1,296,000  =  432xxvii

Also see that half of the chambers are above ground. One half of the number of seconds in the mean solar day is 43200.

432 x 100 is also the ratio of the base of the Pyramid to the equator:

1,577,448,000 inches in circumference  =  43200
  36515 inches perimeter of Cheops       

The Tremenos Wall surrounding the Great Pyramid is 42,300 inches in length.

The square root of .432 is .657267069 which times 100 is a close approximation to the perfect furlong of 657.27 feet.

Converting Cheop’s height (5477.2") to fathoms (72"/fathom) we get 76.072238 fathoms.xxviii  Even though there is no pyramid 40 fathoms high, let’s find the ratio between Cheops’ and Herodotus’ pyramids:

76.072238 fathoms of Cheops  =  1.90180595 x 1/X = .525816
   40 fathoms of Herodotus

Shifting the decimal we again find 5258.16 the ancient canon designation for the feet in the mile and as 525816 minutes in the sacred year. Entering the Pyramid by a "subterranean passage" connotes accessing sacred information by an indirect route.

Of the two different sorts of chambers Herodotus describes half as "underground" and "the whole number (of chambers) is 3000." The latitude of the Great Pyramid is very nearly 30 degrees. Synchronistically we find a co-incident relationship between the square root of 3,000 (underground) and the indicated height of Cheops (above ground.)

Ö 3000 = 54.77225 x 100 = 5477.2 inches, the height of the Pyramid.

By taking the reciprocal of the height:
5477.2 x 1/X = 1.825733717 x 2 x 100,000,000 = 36514.67433

36514.67433 approximates the base of Cheops’ Pyramid: 36515 inches. "The later (upper) built upon the former (lower)…" The height above ground is derived from the perimeter of the base—"under ground."

The pyramid "40 fathoms in height" is a reference to the Third pyramid Mycerinus. 40 fathoms is 240 feet. Though not 40 fathoms high, Mycerinus does have a slope length of nearly 288 feet. This is a reference veiled by scale, as 40 fathoms is 2880 inches.

Another method for entering the Labyrinth through the pyramid on the corner is to recognize that the perimeter of the third pyramid, Mycerinus is 1422.266092 feet. The perimeter divided by 4 gives a mean side length of 355.566523 feet. The Labyrinth of the heavens is entered by a figure embedded in the number of the length of the side of the pyramid, the difference between the mean solar and sidereal days: 3’ 55", three minutes 55 seconds.

Expressing Mycerinus perimeter in inches and dividing by 10,000 derives:

1422.266092 x 12 = 17067.1931 = 1.70671931.

The common log of: 1.7067193110 = 50.90017909 being the seconds of arc of precession per year in the precessional cycle of the equinoxes. The knowledge that the equinoxes move through the "houses" of the zodiac would be the result of eons of astronomical observation and according to Herodotus, an accomplishment well worthy of note.

The heavens are a labyrinth of time, timing, cycles, signs and portents. Man finds his measure in the stars, and in the planets. From the heavens he acquires the measure of the self, for the labyrinth is also the maze within us, and the ‘thread’ which guides us is connected to everything in the universe.

The human body, which evolved on a pulsating planet animated by the rhythms of the firmament, plays out the music of the spheres on its exquisitely tuned physiology. The planets are both above us and in us. In the next section we’ll revisit familiar figures of measure as they reappear in their celestial roles and in the Pyramid—the planetary harmonics of our solar family. To be continued…


Comments and suggestions welcome: Bernard Pietsch.

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This page was updated 24 December 2004.
Copyright © 1999–2005 Bernard I. Pietsch.