**
After many years of studying the metrology of ancient monuments around
the world, we have recovered what we consider to be significant
mathematical correlations between the dimensions geometry, and
geographic locations of many of the great sites of antiquity.**

The following article is an encapsulation of the framework we
presently regard as the Canon of Measure, the basic tool of decoding
the monuments. The Canon unifies Time, Distance and Number with
the dynamics of Nature. The far reaching implications of the framework
from which the Canon is derived are beyond the scope of this brief
presentation, however the authors welcome further inquiry into
the potentials of its application in many disciplines: art, architecture,
ancient literature, and the physical sciences as well.

From all the legends since the days of yore

Saturn, old Chronos, will tell us more.

The measure in the cadence beat

in sound and light makes all compleat!

Saturn, source of measure.^{— Bernard Pietsch, August 15, 1997}

**Saturn, Source of Measure**

Of all the planets in the solar system, Saturn is the most rigorous,
the most regular and the most stable in its orbit. Its path exhibits
the least deviation and is able to absorb the perturbations and
disturbances of space more than any other body in the solar system.
Saturn is imperturbable.

Also known as Kronos, Saturn is the Time Keeper of the solar family. Saturn's orbital performance provides a dependable gauge against which Earth's fluctuations in space can be observed, for only against a reliable standard can deviation, development, growth, or decline be measured. From our position on Earth, when it appears that Saturn is off schedule, so to speak, we can be fairly certain that it is we who are off. Saturn acts as a good mirror for planet Earth's capricious dance through space.

As we might suspect, Saturn dramatically demonstrates the pervasiveness
of the __Golden__ __Proportion__ in our solar system. Known as
* Phi*,

Numerically, the Golden Number is expressed as the minutes in Saturn's
rotational day, **618**. Geometrically it is exemplified on
a planetary level by the conjunction period of Saturn and Jupiter. Every
twenty years or so, Saturn conjuncts with Jupiter at the
** phi** point or

**Sacred and Phenomenal Measures**

The essentials of the measurement system we are about to unfold
could be derived from close observation of any natural event or
structure. But our ringed celestial neighbor Saturn is a particularly
eloquent model. As a planetary resource it sets the standard of
timing for the solar system. From Saturn we will build the system
of measures we refer to as the **Canon of Measure**.
(See previous references on website.)

As you can see, the **Canon** is formulated in perfect
units, yet perfect units are not perceivable in the natural world. Like
the Golden Number, the Canon is an abstraction against which the
physical world can be measured. For example, number
** concepts** like the mean solar day of

Just how the **Canon of Measure** was transmitted historically,we
cannot say. But we can always recover the **Canon** by going
to the *works* themselves. The works are the evidence: temples,
tombs, monuments and other sacred art forms are the repository
of the concepts, and they are available to all.

Besides architectural remnants, some ancient literature also
conveys sacred measures. Often the form is illusive and indirect.
Herodotus for example, 4th Century B.C. Greek historian, exhibits
an elaborate facility with words which is at times both circuitous
and vexing. In his description of the Lake Moeris in section 149
of Book II ** The History**, we find a coded reference to Saturn's
function as the foundation of measure. Herodotus tells us that
Lake Moeris, "a work even more astonishing than the Labyrinths,"
was sixty shones or 3600 furlongs in circumference. After his
description of the Lake, Herodotus assigns numerical values to
the furlong, the cubit, and the palm. (These figures may have
been corrupted in translation, or perhaps Herodotus is trifling
with us as he rarely gives significant information directly.)

Using the conventional or phenomenal unit of a furlong,
**660** feet, the figure of **3600** furlongs
is unengaging. Herodotus' ** intended**
communication becomes transparent when the

** The History** is filled with literary absurdities and ruse
which double as vehicles for coded information. Many of the keys
to unveiling

Sacred measures are hidden only in the sense of being obscured
by the filter of phenomenal or local observation. They are founded
on that which is beyond mere appearance. Because they are relative
to a larger framework than that which is visible here on Earth
we sometimes refer to **Cannon** measures as *cosmic*
values.

One of the keys to the domain of the cosmic is represented by the
"**K**" symbol.
**K**
represents the ratio with which we part the veil. From the phenomenal
world we enter the cosmic realm—a dimension where Time, Distance,
Velocity, Number, and Geometry become
** co-in-ci-dent** with one another, where one is
an expression of all, where everything is in one thing, and where the
law "as above, so below" becomes observable. Here the
application and utility of Number in all its forms transcend the
limitations imposed upon it by ordinary logic. Here, Number can become
Time, distance, angle, ratio, logarithm. We have but to invoke the magic
inherent in Number, and all is made available.

**K** is the
number **1.01430555**. With it, the first measures to be
unveiled are those of ** Time**. The ancients
understood the intimate and inseparable relationship of

For a number of important reasons we adopt the solar year indicated by
the base of Cheops Pyramid as the value **365.15** days
which is **36,515** inches around the perimeter of the
base. This number divided by
**K**
produces the Sacred or Cosmic Year of **360** days. The
same length of time is involved but the relationship of the year to the
circle of **360 is clearly established. From this ancient Sacred
Year we derive the following units:**

ONE COSMIC YEAR360 Days525816 Minutes8763.6 Hours

ONE COSMIC DAY24.34333 Hours1460.6 Minutes87636 Seconds

The derivation of the Sacred Day of **24** hours **20**
minutes and **36** seconds is not only a mathematical construction.
This is also the day (mean cosmic) responded to by plants and
organisms. These circadian rhythms tend to be about 20+ minutes longer
than the mean solar day of **24 **hours; biological rhythms
in humans as well seem to follow this cycle. Also notice the number
of minutes in the Cosmic Year: **525816. **Dividing this by
100 renders the number for the feet in the **Canon** Mile.
The mile has its origin in sacred time.

**Equatorial Earth Measures**
**Derived from the Circumference of Saturn**

How are linear units of Earth measure derived from Saturn? Each
unit as standard will reflect some connection with Saturn, and
because they are commensurate with each other, all equatorial
Earth measures can be derived, from just two primary units:

(The number of miles in the Earth's equator at 25,000 is
taken from the Sacred Cubit of **25** inches.)
(*Clarke
Spheroid: 24,901.55 miles @ 5280 feet/mile.)*

We begin with the primary unit for measuring the Earth—the second of
arc at the Equator. We again look to Saturn for the length of this unit.
Saturn's daily rotational period is 10 hours 14 minutes and 35 seconds.
Expressed decimally it is the number **10.1430555.**
Multiply this by 10 to arrive at **101.430555.** Taken as
feet, we now have the number of feet to the second of arc on the Earth's
equator. Notice **K**
within the number?

If we allow the testimony of Herodotus that there were "eight gods
who existed before the rest," and that these eight were the gods of
Measure, each is represented by one eighth of the circle or 45. Divide
the foundation of measure, Saturn's circumference
**236617.2** by 45 and we arrive at the ancient value for
the number of feet in the Canon mile.

236617.2 / 45 = 5258.16feet

(Recall that this number, 5258.16 times 100 is also the same as the minutes in the Cosmic Year.)

Using the framework of the 360 circle of 1,296,000 seconds or
21,600 minutes of arc, the number of feet to the second of arc
(**101.430555**) and the number of feet to the Canon mile (**5258.16**),
we can now develop all the Earth Equatorial units:

CIRCUMFERENCE (360 degrees)25,000miles40,000kilometers200,000furlongs131,454,000feet

ONE DEGREE OF ARC69.4444444miles111.111111kilometers555.555555furlongs365150feet

ONE MINUTE OF ARC: 6085.833feetONE SECOND OF ARC: 101.430555feet or1217.1666inches

Canon units of measure are not created, they are *derived*,
from ** Time**. A period of time is also used to represent a unit of
length, e.g.

By juxtaposing distance with time, yet another unit of measure
is generated by Saturn's timing—the **Canon** Meter. Divide
the circumference of Saturn, **236617.2 **by the number which
is also the number of minutes in Earth's mean solar day, 1440,
divide by 100, and the result is exactly one-half the measure
we identify as the **Canon** Meter:

**236617.2 1440 = 164.3175 x 2 = 3.28635 feet**

There are **39.4362** inches in the **Canon **meter.

This **Canon** metric value** is**

ONE CANON METER = **3.28635 **feet

**39.4362** inches

1 ----------- = .0253574127 39.4362

**.0253574127** x **100** =**2.5374127**cm/inch

ONE CANON MILE = 1600 Canon Meters

The ancient measure of the **Canon Furlong** is also recognizable
on Saturn as one degree of its circumference in miles, expressed
on Earth in __feet__ as:

**236617.2** **/ 360** = **657.27** This *number
*is now taken as *feet* to the **Canon** furlong.

The Canon furlong is exactly 200 meters or 1/8th of a Canon Mile. The furlong times 20,000 it is the number of feet in the circumference of the Earth

**657.27** x **20,000** = **131,454,000 **feet on the
Equator.

As shown, the figure **101430555** has a number of transformations
and applications. As it is the multiplier which changes the number
of seconds in the circle into the number of **CANON** feet
on the Equator:

**1,296.000 x 1.01430555** = **131,454,000** feet

As a divisor it transforms the Sacred Year into the Lunar Year:

**360** /** 1.01430555 = 354.9226347** days

As **101.430555** it is the number of feet to the second of
arc on the Equator.

As **10.1430555** it is the hours in Saturn's day. This day
is the period of our "phenomenal"observation. The **Canon**
day for Saturn is 10.3 hours, or 618 minutes.

These various manifestations demonstrate the sychronistic aspects
of the **Canon** system. One number can have different levels.
The equatorial second of arc **101.430555 feet **for example,
is in a sense the *first* Earth measure. It also embodies
what we might term the *last* measure—the rate of the precession
of the equinoxes.

The rate of precession is a finely tuned figure, computed after
all the motions, variations, and impressions of all the planets
and masses in the solar system have been calculated. The rate
of precession will always vary, but it averages to approximately
50.9 seconds of arc per year, also recognizable as 1/2 of **.**

__ 101.430555__ =

The Canon value for annual precession is **50.90017909** seconds
of arc.

If measures, though abstractions, are based on relevant frequencies or events occurring in the universe, they will be inherently related to one another. The rhythms and cycles of the cosmos abide in all of Nature, whether, mineral, vegetable or animal. The planets resonate in the physiology of the human body.

Because humans evolved in a framework affected by these vibratory rates—diurnal rotations, lunar phases, revolutions around the Sun etc., it is reasonable to infer that the spectrum of these various vibrational frequencies would be designed into what humans have become both as form and process. Mankind is, as is all of Nature, the repository of all the cycles and all the patterns of its developing environment. We are the result of our biological, geophysical, and astronomical heritage. The genetic code contains not only the blueprint of the individual organism, but also the cumulative record of the entire species.

It is from the internal measures of the perfected or harmonized
individual—the frequencies and ratios of the heartbeat, the breath, the
voice, the orgasmic impulse etc., that the **Canon**
emerges. Physiological events occurring in Time are the ground of the
**Canon**—as the Zen philosophers tell us,
"Everything is in one thing." The foundation of measure is the
human body itself.

When **Canon **measuring units are the basis for
evaluation, the relationships between above and below arise as pattern.
Harmony is observable and ** deviation** from the
harmonized is experienced as

In our next installment, we'll see how each of the planets contributes
to the harmony of the spheres more specifically, as we continue to link
Earth **Canon** measures to the rhythms of the Solar family.

The relationship between all these CANON measures, and the dynamic linkage with the number of CHAOS, 4.669246833, will satisfy the framework question in a mathematical format which includes the demonstration of variance, everywhere and always. Necessary to the continuance of this presentation, a short primer on the mathematical alchemy will be presented in the next installment.

Copyright 1996–2005 Bernard I. Pietsch.