The First Civil War, 1830-1842

Andrew Jackson

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Jackson fought to build the Western landowner career, for himself and his supporters.  This meant the landowner as lawyer, as militia officer over his neighbors, as Indian fighter taking land for those neighbors, as provider of credit, and as agent in dealing with an outside world that provided goods to local people. 

He fought any challenge to the personal authority that the role required.  But he never stopped fighting for the people who supported him. 

All else was detail.


Time Line, 

 to 1842

 -- Born in South Carolina
1788   -- Migrates to Cumberland River country 
 -- Trading to Spanish territory (Natchez).  Takes oath of loyalty to Spanish crown 
1796   -- Member of Congress 
 -- Elected to Senate 
 -- Resigns from Senate
-- Elected militia general 
 -- Raises troops for war against British
 -- Battle of Horseshoe Bend, defeating radical Creeks 
 -- Treaty of Fort Jackson, taking land from both Creek enemies and Creek allies 
 -- Battle of New Orleans, repulsing British expedition
 -- Raid into Spanish Florida, against Seminoles.  Executes Britons Arbuthnot and Ambrister as hostile agents. 
 -- Debate in Washington on Jackson's authority to carry out 1818 raid. 
 -- Consulted by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams on whether it is acceptable to leave Texas on Spanish side of line in boundary treaty of 1819.  Gives his consent. 
 -- Elected Senator
1824-1825   -- Candidate for Presidency, against Adams, Clay, and Crawford.  Receives plurality of popular vote, and in electoral college, but House of Representatives elects Adams 
1825   -- Resigns from Senate 


 -- Elected President, over Adams
1830   -- Signs Indian Removal Act 
1832, July  
 -- Vetoes bill to recharter Bank of the United States 
 -- Signs bill for moderate tariff. 
1832, November  
 -- Re-elected President
1832, December   -- Proclamation against South Carolina's nullification of tariff 
1833, March 2   -- Signs Force Bill, along with Congress's compromise for further scaling down tariff 
1833, October -  
1834, March  
 -- Removes government deposits from Bank of the United States
1834-1836   -- Controversy with France over claims for damage to U.S. commerce during Napoleonic wars 
 -- Federal debt paid off.
 -- Sends first Army expeditions to Florida, in 2nd Seminole War
1836, July  
 -- Specie Circular
1836, August  
 -- Cancels Gaines call-up of volunteers for Texas; orders Gaines to maintain neutrality while occupying Nacogdoches 
1837, January   -- Interview with Santa Anna in White House 
1837, March  
 -- Recognizes independence of Texas 

 -- Ends presidency; retires to Tennessee 

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