Pneumonia

 

DEFINITION:

An inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection.

 

 

 

 

RELATED DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

Crackles are heard when listening to the chest with a stethoscope (auscultation). Tests include: chest X-ray, sputum gram stain, CBC, arterial blood gases. This disease may also alter the results of the following tests: thoracic CT, routine sputum culture, pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan, pleural fluid culture, lung needle biopsy .

 

 

ETIOLOGY:

Pneumonia is a very common, serious illness and affects about 1 out of 100 people each year. It is caused by many different organisms and can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening illness. There are different categories of pneumonia.

 

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT:

The goal of treatment is to cure the infection with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is caused by a virus, antibiotics will not be effective.
Supportive therapy includes oxygen and respiratory treatments to remove secretions.

 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:

 

 

There are different categories of pneumonia. Two of these types are hospital-acquired and community-acquired. Common types of community-acquired pneumonia are pneumococcal pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumonia. In some people, particularly the elderly and those who are debilitated, pneumonia may follow influenza. Hospital-acquired pneumonia tends to be more serious because defense mechanisms against infection are often impaired. Some of the specific pneumonia-related disorders include:

aspiration pneumonia, pneumonia in immunocompromised host and viral pneumonia

 

 

 

 

 

 

NURSING MANAGEMENT:

 

       Pt will need to have breath sounds monitored q 4 to determine if pneumonia is progressing.

       O2 sats should be done regularly ( at least q4during acute phase) to make sure that patient is getting adequate perfusion.

       Make sure to give all scheduled antibiotics on schedule so that therapeutic ranges are maintained.

       Any s/s of infection must be monitored and reported to MD.

 

 

 

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:

Cough (with mucus-like, greenish, or pus-like sputum

chills with shaking ), fever, easy fatigue, chest pain (sharp or stabbing

increased by deep breathing or increased by coughing), headache, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, general discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise), joint stiffness (rare), muscular stiffness (rare), rales

Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease: shortness of breath, clammy skin, nasal flaring, coughing up blood, tacypnea, apnea, anxiety, stress, and tension, abdominal pain .

 

 

 

 

HEALTH DEVIATION SELF-CARE REQUISITES:

        Pt will need to continue on scheduled antibiotics after discharge. Teaching may be necessary to inform patient of therapeutic ranges and need to take all of meds, even if they are feeling better.

        Pt will need to get a PneumonoVax (if does not all ready have0 to help prevent future outbreaks of pneumonia.

        Pt will need to be taught S/S of infection and when to report to MD.

 

REFERENCE PAGES:

www.healthcentral.com

Pathophysiology, pages 1211-1213