An old wrangler named Ramon Dominguez first told me about
Jefe Rojas. I was sixteen at the time, and Ramon was regaling
his son Freddie and me as he often did with tales of nearly
forgotten men, California's vaqueros. "There's this one guy I
used to ride with that even wrote a book," he said, more
wonder entering his voice than I ever heard when he spun
yarns about magical figures such as los chisos or la llorona.
Ramon rarely avoided expanding a remark into a story
when an audience was present, so he added, "My father said he
seen this guy walking across a hay field years ago by San Emideo, no horse or nothing, just a bedroll, and he carried some
books. The boss hired him. That guy he pulled the teeth of
horses," added the aging hostler.
"He did what?" I asked. Ramon and his family lived then in
an old, poor neighborhood of Bakersfieldonce the state's cattle capitala section near Union Cemetery populated largely
by Hispanics, and this conversation occurred in the early 1950s
when attentive youngsters could still listen to the recollections
of men who had cowboyed on the ranges of Rancho Tejon,
Miller and Lux, and the Kern County Land Company. Still, that
was the first time I'd heard anyone mention pulling horses'
"He was horse dentist, that guy Still is, I think."
I looked at Ramon's son, not certain I wasn't being roped.
"No lie," Freddie nodded.
I listened that day to tales of the buckaroo who pulled
horses' teeth, who read books, and who had now written one,
but it wasn't until five years later1958that Freddie handed
me a slim volume, Lore of the California Vaqueros, and I first
read the work of Arnold R. Rojas, known locally as Jefe or
Chief. In it I found a faithful sense of the stories told by old
vaqueros, the voices of Dominguez and Urrea, Albitre and Garcia. It was like sitting under a tree on a long summer afternoon
listening to los viejos.
What I didn't know was that San Francisco Chronicle
book editor William Hogan had been so impressed with the
same volume that he had referred to Rojas as "the vaqueros'
Homer," and not without reason, for Jefe had written tale after
fascinating tale, pulling them like a magician's endless chain of
For example, he recounted the experience of a buckaroo
who tried to ride a bronco while wearing a pocket watch:
The watch fastened to a buckskin thong dropped out of his
vest pocket at the first jump and swung in an arch and hit
the buckaroo in the nose. The next jump, the watch gave
him a black eye and as long as the horse bucked, the watch
swung. If the horse had not quit bucking, the watch "would
have beat him to death," as the vaquero afterward said. He
untied the buckskin thong and threw what was left of the
watch as far away as he could.
He also recounted a meeting with Harry Gillem, a tough,
Seeing that he was bandaged I asked him if he had been in
an accident. He told me of having been set upon by three
men. He had fought them until he had just about whipped
all three, when one of them drew a knife and slashed him.
Harry was cut badly and spent some time in a hospital. But
he carried off the honors of war, however, because he had
fought fair and when he was out of the hospital, two of the
men with whom he had fought paid him $5.00 apiece to not
fight with them again.
All of Rojas' books have been collections of sketches that,
like much good folklore, straddle the boundary between history and fiction. A man of prodigious memory he writes of
incident after incident, character after character, no two
exactly the same, revealing a world of proud, hard-working
"Professional vaqueros rode first for one company then
another," he writes. "A youngster, twelve to fourteen years of
age, school not being compulsory received a starting wage of
$5.00 a month. After a year or two it was raised to $12.00 and it
usually took five years of working experience to earn $25.00 a
and hair ropes were furnished free to the
The language Rojas employs has merited critical comment.
In the Mexico City News
, Margaret Shedd observed that Rojas'
use of Spanish featured "espanol que no esta escrito
" ("Spanish that is not written"), California terms like "chirrionero
" ("a horse that shies at shadows") or
"agarrarse del sauce
" (literally "take hold of the willow,"
meaning to grab the saddle horn when riding a bucking horse);
it is the language of the folk not the professor, idiomatic and
colorful, a product of the working men about whom he writes.
Now ninety years old, Jefe Rojas resides in Wasco, where
he is writing his eighth book. He remains a living link to the
great ranches of the last century For a time he worked on
Rancho Tejon, where he was hired by the legendary mayordomo
J.J. Lopez, who ramrodded riders there from 1874 until
Rojas rode into a Tejon vaquero camp seeking work in the
I had sat down and was fixing something on my saddle
when, looking up, I found watching me, an elderly man
dressed in a pair of corduroy pants faded white from countless washings, a pair of World War I GI canvas leggings, a
mohair coat affected by office workers of that period, shoes
and an old hat. Surely I thought, this couldn't be the
renowned Don Jose Jesus Lopez.
It was. "I got the job," he continues, "and as time passed I
found Don Jesus a man of many partsshrewd, well educated,
with a keen sense of humor."
Jefe was born in 1896 in Pasadena into a family that had
migrated to California from the western Mexican states of
Sonora and Sinaloa in the 1820s. His Indian ancestors were
Yaquis and Mayos, while his Spanish progenitors were Sephardic Jews who migrated to the Americas to escape the
Following the death of his parents, the boy was placed in
an orphanage in San Luis Obispo in 1902. He ran away when he
was 12. "I wanted to come to the San Joaquin Valley and I did,"
he explains. He hoped to become a rider and the San Joaquin,
along with the mountains that surround it, was cattle country
He rode first for the V7 Ranch in San Luis, then on the vast
San Emideo Ranch operated by the Kern County Land Company and later on the Tejon. For the next quarter century
Rojas worked horses and cattle on the California range, knew
its denizens, learned its legends.
In 1935 he purchased a stable in Bakersfield"I called it
the Bar-O because I borrowed everything"and began serving
as a dentist for horses. Both his location and his work kept him
close to the men with whom he had toiled and many a warm
afternoon was spent swapping yarns while leaning on a corral
fence or hunkered next to a hay bale. He listened well.
From the start he had been different from most of his
fellow vaqueros in one respect: he became self-educated, reading voraciously As a teenager, he was staying at his uncle's
cabin in Soledad Canyon near Acton when an aging neighbor"He was starving out," Rojas explainsasked to be staked to
some coffee, flour, beans, and sugar. The old man noticed that
Rojas was reading an O. Henry "Heart of the West" tale in a
magazine, so when he returned, he brought booksDumas,
Cervantes, Kipling, Irvingwhich he exchanged for the loan of
food. That was the beginning of Rojas' literary training.
His reading was like frosting on a cake of practical knowledge, for he not only learned the technology of ranch work, as
well as how to survive in a rough environment, but he also
talked to men who claimed to have known the legendary bandit Joaquin Murrieta, to have eaten ostriches on the Rancho
Tejon and to have ridden camels there, to have been singed by
the Devil at San Emideo or to have confronted the fabled weeping woman, la llorona
, in San Antonio.
Rojas became a writer following World War II when he was
named chairman of a rodeo sponsored by the American Legion
in Bakersfield. Jim Day editor of the Bakersfield Californian
suggested that Jefe compose something that could be used as
publicity for the event, so he wrote thumbnail sketches of several old vaqueros whom he planned to honor at the event. A
few days later, the cuentitos
appeared in Day's column, "Pipefuls." Thereafter, Jefe was an occasional contributor to the
and, in 1952, his work came to the attention of
California historian Monsignor James Culleton, who eventually
published three volumes of the ex-vaquero's tales at the
Academy Library Guild in Fresno: California Vaqueros
Lore of the Calqornia Vaqueros
(1958), and Last of the Vaqaeros
Visiting Jefe in Wasco over thirty years after first having
been told about him, I ask if he remembers Ramon Dominguez.
"Ramon, why sure. He was Frank's boy He was a good old
vaquero, Frank Dominguez, and he gave me a lot of material.
Ramon worked as a teamster on the ranch."
Rojas is a man with strong opinions. When I inquire about
the relationship of "old California families" and more recently
migrated Mexicans, he responds:
When gringos entered the
area and sought title to its riches, the only way to acquire the
land was to marry a daughter of the landowner, and the gringos had already started a campaign of discrimination. They
solved that problem by creating "old Spanish families" and
marrying into them. But those who had no lands left became
Mexicans, doomed to work for cheap wages and to suffer
"The gringos taught the paisanos to be ashamed of their
race," he adds.
Has that changed much? I ask.
"Those of muddy complexions seem to suffer most, but not
so much nowadays. The 'White Trade Only' signs are no longer
posted, and one sees Mexican kids as news commentators,
speaking faultless English, as managers of stores, banks, and
other businesses." He smiles.
"When I was young I left Southern California because I
refused to be a fruit picker. I came to the ranches but the only
work a man of my race could get in those days was as a mule
skinner or vaquero, both cheap 1abor."
The San Joaquin Valleynow conceded to be the richest
agricultural area in the worldwas different when Rojas
entered it early in the century He shakes his head. "Except for
the lupins and poppies, which covered the valley in the spring,
the country was semi-desert and the climate was horrible, with
pea-soup fog in the winter, and 110 degrees in summer. No one
ever thought it would be covered with orchards and vineyards
as it is today"
Even then, he points out, the economic pattern of large
land holdings characterized the region. "When I came here,
three big companies owned most of this part of the valley and
the small farmer was poor indeed. Much of the land was left
for cattle ranges."
Before I pose another question, he adds a postscript:
"Today there are too many people."
Jefe remains a handsome man, lean and leathery with
classic Western features. Standing on his porch and squinting
into spring sunlight, he seems to encapsulate an aspect of California history "I'm still working," he explains, "but it's harder.
Sometimes I don't write for months. Most of the old timers who
told me stories are dead, and it's getting harder to find
When These Were the Vaqueros: The Collected Works of
Arnold R. Rojas was published in 1974, the old horseman
placed his writing in perspective: "I started as a skinny kid, and
the men I admired were the vaqueros who wrote this book."
lt is a prescient statement for, if his style has been to a
degree polished by his reading, his content directly reflects the
hombres del campo with whom he rode; it is in the work of Jefe
Rojas that this state's vaqueros have found their collective
Down the street, four brown children are kicking a soccer
ball and chattering in Spanish. Jefe's hawk eyeseyes that
have watched great condors sweep from the wind to strip the
bones of dead sheep, that have seen men now long-dead struggle to pull stranded cattle from Kern River's sucking sands
lock for a moment on those happy youngsters, those niños
who are growing up in a world remote from the one Jefe once
knew on these same ranges, and who may never understand
their own intimate heritage in this place. After a moment, the
old man smiles and says to me, "lt's been an interesting life."